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is obviously the most based on legends and so the least trustworthy; there never was an Avesta set down under the Achaemenids and destroyed or dispersed by the Greek invaders.
The Avestan texts can not be dated accurately, nor can their language be located geographically.
The corpus which Western scholarship has reconstituted is found in manuscripts that all date from this millennium; the most ancient (K 7a) dates from A. 1288 (Dēnkard" href="/uploads/files/avesta_table_1.jpg"s “books” of the Avesta, which were created by Ahura Mazdā, were brought by Zaraθuštra to king Vištāspa.
The earliest transmission of the Avesta must have been oral only, since no Iranian people seem to have used writing in early times.
Only with the invention of the cuneiform Old Persian script (probably under Darius) would it have been possible to codify the religious texts.
As a matter of fact, early testimonies are at variance in the question of Mazdean books in the first centuries of our era. 112) stated that “the hypothetical Arsacid text will probably prove to be unreal, and the alleged transcribers not to have existed.” G. The comparison of the Avestan letters with those of Pahlavi allowed K. 275) to date the fixing of the canon and its writing down to the fourth century, i.e., approximately under Šāpūr II. Of the history of the Avestan texts from the collapse of the Sasanian empire and the oldest manuscripts in our possession little is known.
Saint Basil states that the magi had no books and the , Mani reported that Zaraθuštra’s disciples wrote his words down “in the books they are reading today.” By a curious coincidence, three outstanding Iranian scholars, more or less simultaneously, published strong criticism of the theory, denying either the existence or at least the relevance of the “Arsacid Avesta”: H. This enterprise, which is indicative of a Mazdean revival and of the establishment of a strict orthodoxy closely connected with the political power, was probably caused by the desire to compete more effectively with Buddhists, Christians, and Manicheans, whose faith was based on a revealed book. We know that the Muslim conquest and the dispersal of the Mazdean communities caused a weakening of the religious tradition and a decline of the liturgical elocution, which caused damage to the written transmission of the Avesta.
Pitt made his big-screen debut in 1989's horror film Actor Brad Pitt was born William Bradley Pitt on December 18, 1963, in Shawnee, Oklahoma, the eldest of three children in a devoutly Southern Baptist family, and grew up in Springfield, Missouri.